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Urethroscopy is the endoscopic study of the urethra. Cystoscopy is the endoscopic study of the lining of the bladder. Usually these studies are performed together as one procedure. Both rigid and flexible scopes can be used to perform the exam. Rigid scopes are generally used for female patients. Small-diameter flexible scopes are used on male dogs. Biopsies of the urethral surface or bladder wall can be obtained by passing the biopsy instrument next to the scope, through the protective outer sleeve of the scope or through an opening built into the scope. This procedure requires little patient preparation outside of withholding food on the day of the procedure. In most cases, patients are discharged the same day the procedure is performed.

The major symptoms and reasons to perform a urethroscopy and/or cystoscopy are:

  • Blood in the urine (persistent hematuria)
  • Persistent straining to urinate
  • Persistent vaginal discharge
  • Removal of bladder stones (cystic calculi or urethral calculi)
  • Biopsy of known bladder growth
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Study of congenital urinary tract problems
See our departments

Internal Medicine

Internal medicine is practiced by internists, or doctors that specialize in the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of most diseases that are not surgical in nature. Thus, as in human medicine, internists can be called a "doctor's doctor" due to the fact that they tend to specialize in patients with conditions that are more difficult to treat and/or diagnose. Internists are also often trained to use advanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that may not be available at regular veterinarians. These include rhinoscopy, bronchoscopy, gastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, vaginoscopy, cystoscopy; thoracic and abdominal ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT or CAT) scans, stent placement and management including tracheal stents, urethral and uretheral stents, cystoscopic-guided removal of bladder stones, respiratory testing, blood and infectious disease workups, feeding tube placement, obtaining biopsies and cytology samples of many tissues, joint taps, bone marrow aspiration and core biopsy, CSF taps, and many more advanced laboratory testing.

The Role of an Internal Medicine Specialist

Your pet's condition may be more complicated than your regular veterinarian feels comfortable diagnosing and treating. Furthermore, your pet may have multiple underlying conditions that have conflicting treatments. This kind of patient will benefit from a consultation with an internist.

From animals that don't seem to be able to stop having accidents in the house to animals with severe heart disease that are oxygen dependent, and internist has the experience and knowledge necessary to deliver the absolute best care available. Some of the advanced diagnostics available can change a situation from one where we don't know what is causing a dog to stop eating and act tired to having the information we need to begin immediate treatment for a speedy and full recovery.

An internist is NOT a replacement for your regular veterinarian, but a power complement that works closely with your pet's family doctor to ensure that they receive the absolute best medical care that is available today.

VCA Highlands Ranch Animal Specialty & Emergency Center's department of internal medicine is lead by Dr. Steffen Sum. His focus includes extensive work and ongoing training in urology, diagnostic services, hemodialysis, infectious disease, advanced imaging and endoscopy.

Our Internal Medicine Services

Abdominocentesis
Bronchoalveolar Lavage BAL
Bronchoscopy
Colonoscopy

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