Joint Support and Disease-Modifying Osteoarthritis Drugs (DMOADs) in Dogs

By Malcolm Weir, DVM, MSc, MPH; Krista Williams, BSc, DVM; Robin Downing, DVM, CVPP, CCRP, DAAPM

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive, degenerative disease of the joints. It is one of the most common chronic diseases of dogs. By some estimates, 20% of dogs of all ages are affected by OA.

What causes osteoarthritis?hip_joint_anatomy_2018-01

The contributing causes of OA are many and varied. A dog's conformation (how the body is put together) can set the stage for movements that put extra stress and strain on the joints. Some genetic abnormalities, such as canine hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia, can prevent joints from developing normally. Joints affected by dysplasia tend to develop OA early in life. OA can also result from a traumatic injury to a joint (for instance, in a dog that is hit by a car).

Being overweight or obese increases the risk of OA in dogs. The joints of an overweight or obese dog are subjected to repetitive overloading that, over time, contribute to the initiation and progression of OA and the degenerative, painful processes associated with it.

"Being overweight or obese increases the risk of OA in dogs."

What can I do to help my dog with OA?

Your veterinarian is the best source for a comprehensive OA management plan. If your dog is overweight or obese, that is where to start, but much more can be done to help support the joints of a dog with OA. In addition to diet modifications, exercise, weight loss, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), management strategies for OA may include a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD).

What is a DMOAD?

A DMOAD is a medication that can slow or alter the progression of OA. One of the DMOADs commonly used in dogs with OA is an injectable medication containing the active ingredient polysulfated glycosaminoglycan, or PSGAG (Adequan® and Cartrophen®).

"A DMOAD is a medication that can slow or alter the progression of OA."

PSGAG has several effects that help manage OA. Once injected, the PSGAG is distributed into joint fluid and cartilage. Although the exact mechanism of action is not entirely understood, PSGAG inhibits enzymes that contribute to cartilage destruction, therefore slowing cartilage breakdown in OA joints. By blocking cartilage destruction, PSGAG helps decrease inflammation which is a significant source of pain in a dog with OA. PSGAG also contributes to cartilage healing by providing the body with the building blocks of cartilage. Finally, this medication improves the consistency of joint fluid, providing better joint lubrication, improving joint mobility, and increasing comfort in dogs with OA.

How are injections of PSGAG given?

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for PSGAG specifies 12 injections given into a muscle over eight weeks in dogs with OA. Studies have shown that injecting under the skin results in the same distribution of PSGAG to the joints as injections into a muscle. These subcutaneous injections are much less painful for dogs and much easier to give. Most veterinarians teach their clients to give PSGAG injections under the skin at home (just like giving insulin but much less frequently).

Will my dog's OA be cured after giving the initial 12 injections of PSGAG?

Although the FDA label specifies an 8-week treatment period, unfortunately, OA is never cured; it is only managed. For this reason, most veterinarians recognize the need for ongoing joint support in dogs with OA.


Are there any side effects of PSGAG that I should watch for?

Mild short-lived diarrhea has been reported with PSGAG use at the recommended dose. PSGAG is not recommended for use in dogs with bleeding disorders. Vomiting, lethargy, and loss of appetite have also been reported but are not common.

How long after starting PSGAG will I notice an improvement in my dog?

Because PSGAGs are but one part of a comprehensive approach to OA, most dogs will improve quickly. That said, the effects of PSGAG appear to be cumulative, so optimal results can be expected by the eighth week, when the frequency of injections drops to twice monthly.

How long will my dog need PSGAG injections?

OA is a progressive lifetime disease. Fortunately, PSGAG is generally considered beneficial over the long term. Because the risk of adverse side effects is relatively low, long-term use of PSGAG is generally well-tolerated.

In some cases, a dog's OA management can be fine-tuned so that ongoing PSGAG dosing allows for a decreased dose or even withdrawal of pain medications (e.g., NSAIDs) that have a higher risk of side effects.

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