Our knowledge of bird nutrition is constantly evolving, both from heightened awareness of the importance of nutrition and from increased research into birds’ different needs. As with all other animals, birds need a proper balance of carbohydrates, proteins, fat, vitamins, minerals and water. Different species of birds often require different foods.
Should I be concerned about what my Quaker parrot eats?
"Poor nutrition is a common reason for many health problems in birds."
Proper nutrition is commonly neglected and critically important with pet birds. You should discuss your parrot's nutritional needs with your veterinarian. Too often, owners assume they are feeding a proper diet to their bird, when in fact, they are not. Poor nutrition is a common reason for many health problems in birds. Good health depends on how well they are fed, so it is essential that bird owners are educated about what to feed their birds. Bird owners should stay in contact with their avian veterinarian to stay current on their birds' nutritional needs.
What do wild Quaker parrots eat?
Wild Quaker parrots eat a variety of seeds, nuts, fruits, berries and vegetation such as leaf buds and blossoms. Some eat insects and their larva. They also like to raid farmers' crops.
What should I feed my Quaker parrot?
Like other birds, Quaker parrots need to eat a balanced diet to stay healthy.
Wild Quaker parrots eat a great variety of seed types as different plants come into season. Commercially available seed and nut mixes may contain 2-5 different kinds of seeds. However, the seeds tend to be high-fat and nutrient deficient and are not the same kinds of seeds that wild birds eat. Often, these seed and nut mixes are fed as the only source of food, leading to ill health and potentially, a shortened lifespan. When offered a mixture of seeds, Quaker parrots tend to selectively eat only 1 or 2 of their favorite types of seeds and nuts. Peanuts and sunflower seeds are often chosen preferentially, however, these items are particularly high in fat and deficient in calcium, vitamin A, and other nutrients. This often leads to malnutrition.
Seeds are highly palatable and preferentially sought after, but they are quite nutritionally deficient. Seeds should only be a very small part of a balanced diet and should never be the entire diet. In addition, nuts should only be offered occasionally, as their high fat content can contribute to high blood cholesterol and the deposition of cholesterol in arteries (referred to as atherosclerosis) which can predispose birds to strokes and heart attacks. This predisposition seems to have a genetic basis in Quaker parrots, so the amount of fat in their diets should be carefully controlled. If you gradually offer fewer seeds in favor of more nutritionally balanced items, your bird will start eating other foods.
“Seeds are highly palatable and preferentially sought after, but they are quite nutritionally deficient.”
Several types of commercially formulated pelleted diets in various colors, shapes, and sizes have been developed to meet all birds’ nutritional needs. Pellets are the ideal diet for most birds, so seed-eating birds should be slowly weaned off seeds and placed onto a pelleted diet. Pellets should ideally represent a minimum of 70% of the bird's diet. Mature birds raised on seed diets may be particularly difficult to convert to a pelleted diet. Hand-raised babies are generally the easiest to start on a pelleted diet.
Fruits and Vegetables
Fruits, vegetables and greens should account for approximately 20% of the daily diet. Pale vegetables, with high water composition (i.e., iceberg or head lettuce, celery) offer very little nutritional value and should not be offered. Avocado is reported to be potentially toxic and should never be fed to a bird. Fruits and vegetables must be washed thoroughly to remove chemicals before feeding. They should be cut into very small pieces appropriate to the size of the bird. It is not necessary to take the skin off. Offer fruits and vegetables in a separate dish. If your bird appears to develop a particular fancy for one food item, reduce the volume of this food, or stop feeding it temporarily to encourage the bird to eat other foods.
Fresh clean water must be available at all times. Depending on the quality of your tap water, you might consider using bottled water. Dishes must be cleaned thoroughly every day with soap and water.
How do I convert my bird to a pelleted diet?
Converting seed-eating birds onto a formulated diet is not always easy. Initially, birds may not recognize pellets as food. Birds may be offered pellets in a bowl separate from any other food and ideally first thing in the morning, when they are hungriest. If they do not eat them right away, birds may be slowly weaned off seeds over a period of a few weeks, while pellets are constantly available in a separate dish. Pellets and seed should not be mixed together, as birds will simply pick out the seeds that they like best. It may take days, weeks or months to modify a birds' diet. Pelleted food may be crushed up into a powder and sprinkled over moist table food to get a bird to taste the pellets. Gradually, pellets may be crushed less fine and mixed with smaller amounts of table food until table food is no longer needed to get the bird to eat pellets. Birds should be weighed at least once a week as they convert over to a pelleted diet to ensure that they are not losing large amounts of weight. Converting a bird to a predominately pelleted diet can be a stressful time for both you and your bird. Consult your veterinarian if you encounter any problems with this transition or with the health of your bird.
"Pellets and seed should not be mixed together, as birds will simply pick out the seeds that they like best."
What about people food?
As a rule, any wholesome, nutritious food that you and your family eat, your bird can also eat, but in very small quantities. Follow the general guidelines discussed above. Occasionally, some birds enjoy a very small amount of lean cooked meat, fish, egg or cheese. Dairy products should be consumed in moderation as birds are lactose-intolerant. Junk food, chocolate, salty foods (chips, pretzels, popcorn) as well as products containing caffeine and alcoholic beverages may be toxic to birds and should not be offered.
Will my bird have any different needs throughout its life?
Birds that are extremely young, stressed, injured, laying eggs or raising young may have certain special requirements. There are specially formulated pelleted foods available for birds with specific nutritional requirements. Consult your veterinarian regarding these situations.
Does my bird need extra vitamins, minerals or amino acids?
Your veterinarian can help you assess your bird's diet and its particular needs. In general, birds that are eating pellets as the basis of their diets do not need supplements. Specific vitamins or minerals may be more important at various times during a bird's life (e.g., egg laying requires calcium supplementation). Calcium supplements are available if your parrot is determined to be deficient.
"In general, birds that are eating pellets as the basis of their diets do not need supplements."
Does my bird need gravel or grit?
Controversy exists over the need for gravel. Previously it was believed that grit was necessary for the mechanical breakdown of food in the gizzard to aid in digestion. This is true for birds that ingest seeds whole, shell, and all. However, many birds remove the shell before ingesting the seed kernel. Birds that eat this way do not need grit in their diet. Some birds will have problems if grit is over eaten.
What pointers should I remember about feeding my Quaker parrot?
- Always monitor the amount of food eaten every day by each bird, especially if birds are housed together.
- Offer fresh water everyday.
- Offer fresh fruits and vegetables every day.
- Clean all food and water dishes daily.
- If a bird rejects a food one day, it may accept it another day. Keep trying!
Some suggested food items include: