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Urethroscopy is the endoscopic study of the urethra. Cystoscopy is the endoscopic study of the lining of the bladder. Usually these studies are performed together as one procedure. Both rigid and flexible scopes can be used to perform the exam. Rigid scopes are generally used for female patients. Small-diameter flexible scopes are used on male dogs. Biopsies of the urethral surface or bladder wall can be obtained by passing the biopsy instrument next to the scope, through the protective outer sleeve of the scope or through an opening built into the scope. This procedure requires little patient preparation outside of withholding food on the day of the procedure. In most cases, patients are discharged the same day the procedure is performed.

The major symptoms and reasons to perform a urethroscopy and/or cystoscopy are:


  • Blood in the urine (persistent hematuria)
  • Persistent straining to urinate
  • Persistent vaginal discharge
  • Removal of bladder stones (cystic calculi or urethral calculi)
  • Biopsy of known bladder growth
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Study of congenital urinary tract problems
See our departments

Internal Medicine

Certain diseases and conditions require the care of a doctor who has had specialized, intensive training in internal medicine.

Our Internal Medicine Services

Abdominocentesis
Arthrocentesis
Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL)
Bronchoscopy

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