Just like in people, some pregnant pets may require a cesarean section (also called a “C-section”), which is a surgery to remove puppies or kittens directly from the uterus. This is performed when natural (unassisted) delivery of the puppies or kittens is impossible or potentially harmful to the mother or her babies. The reasons for cesarean section are numerous and may include that the mother was too sick to deliver the young, mechanical obstruction of the birth canal occurred (such as with unusually large babies, old fractures, or tumors) or other reasons. If a problem is anticipated, these surgeries can be scheduled and planned for the time of the mother's due date. If a problem has occurred during labor, this surgery is often an emergency and must be done immediately (even in the middle of the night). After full recovery from a cesarean section, the mother usually assumes her normal maternal duties. In the majority of cases, both the mother and babies do very well following surgery.